The first wireless headsets that use deep learning to transcribe calls are called ClearBuds

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The researchers presented this project June 30 at the ACM International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services. “ClearBuds differentiate themselves from other wireless earbuds in two key ways,” said co-lead author Maruchi Kim, a doctoral student in the Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science & Engineering. “First, ClearBuds use a dual microphone array. Microphones in each earbud create two synchronized audio streams that provide information and allow us to spatially separate sounds coming from different directions with higher resolution. Second, the lightweight neural network further enhances the speaker’s voice.”

Meetings moved online during the COVID-19 lockdown, and many people discovered that loud noises like garbage trucks and chatting housemates interfered with crucial discussions. Three University of Washington academics who were housemates during the pandemic were motivated to create better earbuds as a result of their experience. “ClearBuds” uses a cutting-edge microphone system and one of the first real-time machine learning systems to run on a smartphone to improve the speaker’s voice and lessen background noise.


  • “Because the speaker’s voice is close by and approximately equidistant from the two earbuds, the neural network can be trained to focus on just their speech and eliminate background sounds, including other voices,” said co-lead author Ishan Chatterjee, a doctoral student in the Allen School. “This method is quite similar to how your own ears work. They use the time difference between sounds coming to your left and right ears to determine from which direction a sound came from.”

  • While most commercial earbuds also have microphones on each earbud, only one earbud is actively sending audio to a phone at a time. With ClearBuds, each earbud sends a stream of audio to the phone. The researchers designed Bluetooth networking protocols to allow these streams to be synchronized within 70 microseconds of each other. The team’s neural network algorithm runs on the phone to process the audio streams. First it suppresses any non-voice sounds. And then it isolates and enhances any noise that’s coming in at the same time from both earbuds — the speaker’s voice.

“It’s extraordinary when you consider the fact that our neural network has to run in less than 20 milliseconds on an iPhone that has a fraction of the computing power compared to a large commercial graphics card, which is typically used to run neural networks,” said co-lead author Vivek Jayaram, a doctoral student in the Allen School. “That’s part of the challenge we had to address in this paper: How do we take a traditional neural network and reduce its size while preserving the quality of the output?”

A circular circuit leans up against two 3D printed earbud cases
Shown here, the ClearBuds hardware (round disk) in front of the 3D printed earbud enclosures.Raymond Smith/University of Washington When the researchers compared ClearBuds with Apple AirPods Pro, ClearBuds performed better, achieving a higher signal-to-distortion ratio across all tests.

The team also tested ClearBuds “in the wild,” by recording eight people reading from Project Gutenberg in noisy environments, such as a coffee shop or on a busy street. The researchers then had 37 people rate 10- to 60-second clips of these recordings. Participants rated clips that were processed through ClearBuds’ neural network as having the best noise suppression and the best overall listening experience.

Additional co-authors are Ira Kemelmacher-Shlizerman, an associate professor in the Allen School; Shwetak Patel, a professor in both the Allen School and the electrical and computer engineering department; and Shyam Gollakota and Steven Seitz, both professors in the Allen School. This research was funded by The National Science Foundation and the University of Washington’s Reality Lab.


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